Mohammed Siad Barre, who was overthrown as President of Somalia in after ruling that impoverished African country for more than 20 years, died yesterday in exile in Lagos, Nigeria. Official accounts put his age near 74, but reference books place his birth variously between and General Siad Barre's departure from the scene four years ago left Somalia without a central authority, on the brink of mass starvation and with a civil war among feuding clans and their militias.
As commander of the armed forces, he had taken control of Somalia, in the Horn of Africa, in General Siad Barre's rule was marked by a war with Ethiopia, a flip-flop in political alliances from the Soviet Union to the United States, and growing allegations of human rights abuses. In its final years, his Government steadily lost control of much of the countryside to the chiefs of warring clans, plunging the country into racking social and economic problems.
Human rights groups issued reports citing a consistent pattern of political imprisonment, torture, political killings and discrimination against the Isaaks clan. In MayPresident Siad Barre was seriously injured in an automobile accident, but later that year he was nominated by the country's sole legal political party for re-election, ran uncontested and won a new seven-year term.
Yet there continued to be questions about the extent of his recovery. Reports of feeble health combined with the country's internal strife led to a weakening of his grasp on power, American officials believed. Toward the end, they said, he was struggling to arrange a succession that would insure that his family and clan -- the Marehan clan -- remained in power. Many believed he was grooming his son, Maslah, who was a Soviet-trained army general.
Instead, Somalia was steeped in turmoil. United Nations and United States troops partly managed to open relief-supply lines to a famished population, but that costly effort, too, has yet to bring about a political solution and peace to the country.
According to his Government's version, General Siad Barre was born in or He was educated in private schools in Mogadishu, the capital, and attended the Military Academy in Italy and School of Administration and Politics in Somalia.
From to he served in the Somali Police Force and rose to the rank of chief inspector. Inwhen the Somali Republic was created out of territories formerly ruled by the Italians and British, he was made a colonel and deputy commandant of the newly formed Somali National Army.
He rose to brigadier general in and major general in On Oct. Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, was assassinated by a police officer in a factional quarrel, General Siad Barre led a successful and bloodless coup. Assuming power, he espoused "scientific socialism," arguing there was no inconsistency with the principles of Islam, and turned to the Soviet Union for support.
Inhis army invaded the disputed Ogaden area of southeastern Ethiopia. At about the same time, Ethiopia split with the United States and became more closely aligned with the Soviet Union. With the help of Cuban troops and billions of dollars' worth of Soviet weapons, the Ethiopians turned back the Somalis in Somalia received military and economic aid from the United States for a promise of American use of the port of Berbera on the Gulf of Aden.
But aid declined drastically as allegations of human rights abuses rose. InSomalia revived contacts with Libya. In Mayfierce fighting broke out in the north between the Government and rebels who contended they had been discriminated against by the Siad Barre Government and were fighting for a more democratic Government.
A report commissioned by the State Department and made public in September said the Somali Army "purposely murdered" at least 5, unarmed civilians over a month period in the early phases. The Government denied the allegation. More than 10, people were reported killed in the months that followed, with allegations that the Somali military had bombed towns and strafed fleeing residents.
Amnesty International said in August that since the Government had used torture and "widespread arbitrary arrests, ill treatment and summary executions" of civilians suspected of collaborating with the rebels. In his last year in office, President Siad Barre promised reforms to introduce multi-party democracy.
In Junea hundred prominent citizens signed a declaration called the Mogadishu Manifesto, calling for his resignation and the appointment of a transitional government pending free elections. He called the manifesto "destructive," and jailed 45 of those who had signed it, but about a month later he ordered their release.
He agreed to multi-party parliamentary elections to be scheduled in February but later canceled them and the civil war took its course.
View on timesmachine. TimesMachine is an exclusive benefit for home delivery and digital subscribers.Siad was born about or earlier into a nomadic family in the small Marehan clan of the Daarood clan group in Italian Somaliland. He joined the Somali police force after the British took control of the country in and rose to the post of chief inspector.
When Somalia was returned to Italian sovereignty inSiad was sent to the military academy in Italy. He transferred to the Somali national army when it was formedand by he held the rank of major general and had become commander in chief.
After seizing power on Oct. He later renounced his ties with the Soviets and sought U. By fighting among clans and between clan militias and the government forced Siad to promise reforms, including free elections. He was forced out of office in January and in went into exile in Nigeria.
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His forces began infiltrating into the Ogaden in May—Juneand overt warfare began in July. By September Mogadishu controlled 90 percent of the Ogaden…. Mohamed Siad Barre Maxamed Siyaad Barre held dictatorial rule over the country from October until Januarywhen he was overthrown in a bloody civil war waged by clan-based guerrillas. In the end,…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address.Billionaires March Etica Sgr sostiene Archivio Desaparecido, il progetto che fa luce sui desaparecidos italiani.
E Omar Arteh Ghalib and the Zambian foreign minister. Is it true that siad barre's regime would regularly burn historical records especially those of Ajuran Empire? Posts about Barre period written by rickjdavies.
This photograph originates from a press photo archive. Mohammed Siad Barre was the architect of the Somali October Revolution and the third president of the young nation. Follow others who share your interestsKenya's Bold Newspaper.
Find the latest news in politics, business, entertainment, sports, live radio and TVFind high-quality Siad Barre stock illustrations from Getty Images. Transfers news market values rumours transfer market done deals statisticsShop Crate and Barrel to find everything you need to outfit your home. The results are fact checked and confirmed by a team of editors and industry insiders. Siad Barre.President Reagan Meeting with President Siad Barre of Somalia. Oval Office on March 11, 1982
Mohamed Siad Barre. We work diligently to ensure that our numbers are the most accurate celebrity net worth data you will findSiad Barre Q Among the 48 Jews who made the list, 42Read or write a story, book, quiz, survey, or poll.
L'un des plus grands photoreporters contemporains nous raconte l'horreur. His influences came from countries such as China and Russia. Ia adalah mantan presiden yang berhaluan sosialis dan bertugas sebagai komandan tentara dalam pemerintahan demokratik Somalia. Military dictator and 3rd president of Somalia who held the office from to Net Worth isSomalian leader Siad Barre leaves after talks which appears to reflect improving relations between the two countries, 16 January Beside biography of Muhammad Siad Barre, we also provide a lot of biographies of other famous people.
The country has been mired in insecurity since Barre left and is battling Islamist group al Shabaab that frequently carries out bombings in the capital Mogadishu and elsewhere in the country. Ford Presidential Library.
He also earned some great money from various investments and endorsement deals he hasI would peg it in the 0 - 0 mil range, he had enormous bets against Fannie Mae but remember he got a percentage cause he was running a fund.The Supreme Revolutionary Council military junta under Barre reconstituted Somalia as a one-party Marxist—Leninist communist staterenaming the country the Somali Democratic Republic and adopting scientific socialismwith support from the Soviet Union.
Barre's early rule was characterised by attempts at widespread modernizationnationalization of banks and industry, promotion of cooperative farmsa new writing system for the Somali languageand anti- tribalism. Barre's popularity was highest during the seven months between September and March when Barre captured virtually the entirety of the Somali region. Opposition grew in the s due to his increasingly dictatorial rule, growth of tribal politics, abuses of the National Security Service including the Isaaq genocideand the sharp decline of Somalia's economy.
InBarre's government collapsed as the Somali Rebellion successfully ejected him from power, leading to the Somali Civil Warand forcing him into exile where he died in Nigeria in The group presented a petition to the "Four Powers" Investigation Commission in order to allow that the administration of the United Nations Trust Territory could be entrusted for thirty years to Italy.
In the early s, after spending time with Soviet officers in joint training exercises, Barre became an advocate of Soviet-style Marxist-Leninist government, believing in a socialist government and a stronger sense of Somali nationalism.
Barre assumed the position of President of Somaliastyled the "Victorious Leader" Guulwadeand fostered the growth of a personality cult with portraits of him in the company of Marx and Lenin lining the streets on public occasions.
The Supreme Revolutionary Council established large-scale public works programs and successfully implemented an urban and rural literacy campaign, which helped dramatically increase the literacy rate. Barre began a program of nationalising industry and land, and the new regime's foreign policy placed an emphasis on Somalia's traditional and religious links with the Arab worldeventually joining the Arab League in The SRSP was an attempt to reconcile the official state ideology with the official state religion by adapting Marxist precepts to local circumstances.
Emphasis was placed on the Muslim principles of social progress, equality and justice, which the government argued formed the core of scientific socialism and its own accent on self-sufficiency, public participation and popular control, as well as direct ownership of the means of production. While the SRSP encouraged private investment on a limited scale, the administration's overall direction was essentially communist.
A new constitution was promulgated in under which elections for a People's Assembly were held. One of the first and principal objectives of the revolutionary regime was the adoption of a standard national writing system. Barre supported the official use of Latin script for the Somali languagereplacing Arabic script and Wadaad writing that had been used for centuries.
Shortly after coming to power, Barre introduced the Somali language Af Soomaali as the official language of education, and selected the modified Somali Latin alphabet developed by the Somali linguist Shire Jama Ahmed as the nation's standard orthography. From then on, all education in government schools had to be conducted in Somali, and inall government employees were ordered to learn to read and write Somali within six months. The reason given for this was to decrease a growing rift between those who spoke the colonial languages, Italian or Englishand those who did not, as many of the high ranking positions in the former government were given to people who spoke either Italian or English.
Additionally, Barre also sought to eradicate the importance of the Somali clan system qabil within Somalia's government and civil society. The inevitable first question that Somalis asked one another when they met was, '"What is your clan? Barre outlawed this question and a broad range of other activities classified as "clanism", with informers reporting qabiliststhose considered to propagate the clan system, to the government, leading to arrests and imprisonment.
On a more symbolic level, Barre had repeated a number of times, "Whom do you know? Barre advocated the concept of a Greater Somalia Soomaaliweynwhich refers to those regions in the Horn of Africa in which ethnic Somalis reside and have historically represented the predominant population. The Somali national army invaded Ethiopia, which was now under communist rule of the Soviet-backed Dergand was successful at first, capturing most of the territory of the Ogaden.
The invasion reached an abrupt end with the Soviet Union's shift of support to Ethiopia, followed by almost the entire communist world siding against Somalia.
The Soviets halted their previous supplies to Barre's regime and increased the distribution of aid, weapons, and training to the Ethiopian government, and also brought in around 15, Cuban troops to assist the Ethiopian regime.
Inthe Somali troops were ultimately pushed out of the Ogaden. Control of Somalia was of great interest to both the Soviet Union and the United States due to the country's strategic location at the mouth of the Red Sea. After the Soviets broke with Somalia in the late s, Barre subsequently expelled all Soviet advisers, tore up his friendship treaty with the Soviet Union, and switched allegiance to the Westannouncing this in a televised speech in English.
In September Tanzanian -sponsored rebels attacked Uganda. Ugandan President Idi Amin requested Barre's assistance, and he subsequently mediated a non-aggression pact between Tanzania and Uganda. For his actions, a road in Kampala was named after Barre.
In JanuaryBarre and the Ethiopian dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam met in Djibouti to normalise relations between their respective countries  .Somalia's adherence to socialism became official on the first anniversary of the military coup when Siad Barre proclaimed that Somalia was a socialist state, despite the fact that the country had no history of class conflict in the Marxist sense. For purposes of Marxist analysis, therefore, tribalism was equated with class in a society struggling to liberate itself from distinctions imposed by lineage group affiliation.
At the time, Siad Barre explained that the official ideology consisted of three elements: his own conception of community development based on the principle of self-reliance, a form of socialism based on Marxist principles, and Islam.
Somalia's Overthrown Dictator, Mohammed Siad Barre, Is Dead
These were subsumed under "scientific socialism," although such a definition was at variance with the Soviet and Chinese models to which reference was frequently made. The theoretical underpinning of the state ideology combined aspects of the Quran with the influences of Marx, Lenin, Mao, and Mussolini, but Siad Barre was pragmatic in its application. Somalia's alignment with communist states, coupled with its proclaimed adherence to scientific socialism, led to frequent accusations that the country had become a Soviet satellite.
For all the rhetoric extolling scientific socialism, however, genuine Marxist sympathies were not deep-rooted in Somalia. But the ideology was acknowledged--partly in view of the country's economic and military dependence on the Soviet Union--as the most convenient peg on which to hang a revolution introduced through a military coup that had supplanted a Western-oriented parliamentary democracy. More important than Marxist ideology to the popular acceptance of the revolutionary regime in the early s were the personal power of Siad Barre and the image he projected.
Portraits of him in the company of Marx and Lenin festooned the streets on public occasions.
Siad Barre Net Worth
The epigrams, exhortations, and advice of the paternalistic leader who had synthesized Marx with Islam and had found a uniquely Somali path to socialist revolution were widely distributed in Siad Barre's little blue-and-white book.
Despite the revolutionary regime's intention to stamp out the clan politics, the government was commonly referred to by the code name MOD. These were the three clans whose members formed the government's inner circle. Infor example, ten of the twenty members of the SRC were from the Daarood clan-family, of which these three clans were a part; the Digil and Rahanwayn, the sedentary interriverine clan-families, were totally unrepresented.
Somalia Table of Contents Somalia's adherence to socialism became official on the first anniversary of the military coup when Siad Barre proclaimed that Somalia was a socialist state, despite the fact that the country had no history of class conflict in the Marxist sense. Custom Search Source: U. Library of Congress.Military dictator and 3rd President of Somalia who held the office from to He attended police school in Italy and returned to Somaliawhere he eventually became Vice Commander of the army.
He established a Supreme Revolutionary Council and ruled through a cult of personality that styled him as the "Victorious Leader" after he seized power. Hassan Mohamud was elected President of Somalia in and re-established democratic relations with the United States. Reality Star. TV Show Host. Basketball Player. TV Actor. World Music Singer. Pop Singer. Football Player. Movie Actress. Baseball Player. Instagram Star. Soccer Player. TV Actress. Family Member.
Military dictator and 3rd president of Somalia who held the office from to Siad Barre is a member of Politician. Tags: births Somalia Politician Somalia net worth Politician net worth richest money.As the date approached, however, they changed their minds. The leader of the True and Living Church of Jesus Christ of Saints of the Last Days predicted the Second Coming of Christ would occur on this day.
According to her website, aliens in the Zeta Reticuli star system told her through messages via a brain implant of a planet which would enter our solar system and cause a pole shift on Earth that would destroy most of humanity. This Japanese cult predicted the world would be destroyed by a nuclear war between October 30 and November 29, 2003. In his 1990 book The New Millennium, Robertson suggests this date as the day of Earth's destruction. He prophesied nuclear explosions in U. After his prophecy failed to come true he changed the date for the return of Jesus Christ to May 27, 2012.
When his original prediction failed to come about, Camping revised his prediction and said that on May 21, a "Spiritual Judgment" took place, and that both the physical Rapture and the end of the world would occur on October 21, 2011. Others predicted that Elenin would collide with Earth on October 16. Scientists tried to calm fears by stating that none of these events were possible.
The 2012 phenomenon predicted the world would end at the end of the 13th b'ak'tun. Mayanist scholars stated that no extant classic Maya accounts forecasted impending doom, and that the idea that the Long Count calendar ends in 2012 misrepresented Maya history and culture. Scientists from NASA, along with expert archeologists, stated that none of those events were possible. The so-called Blood Moon Prophecy, first predicted by Mark Blitz in 2008 and then by John Hagee in 2014.
These Christian ministers claimed that the tetrad in 2014 and 2015 may allegedly represent prophecies given in the Bible relating to the second coming of Jesus Christ. Author, scientist, and conspiracy theorist David Meade predicted that an unseen planet, Nibiru (or sometimes Planet X), would become visible in the Earth's sky and that said planet would then "soon" destroy the Earth and Armageddon would take place during this date.
This American psychic claimed that Armageddon would take place in 2020, and Jesus will return to defeat the unholy trinity of the Antichrist, Satan, and the False prophet between 2020 and 2037.
She had also previously predicted the world would end on February 4, 1962. Messiah Foundation InternationalMembers predict that the world will end in 2026, when an asteroid would collide with Earth in accordance with Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi's predictions in The Religion of God. The chances are only 1 out of 300,000. Rather, he gave it as a date before which it could not happen.
He later revised this date to 2016. Talmud, Orthodox JudaismAccording to an opinion about the Talmud in mainstream Orthodox Judaism, the Messiah will come within 6000 years of the creation of Adam, and the world may be destroyed 1000 years later. This would put the beginning of the period of desolation in the year 2239 CE and the end of the period of desolation in the year 3239 CE.
Somalia: Information on names of Siad Barre's brothers, sisters, nieces and nephews
According to this Egyptian-American biochemist's research on the Quran, the world will end during that year.
The star's axis of rotation will have yet to be determined with certainty. Earth will have likely been hit by an asteroid of roughly 1 km in diameter during this period, assuming it cannot be averted. Bostrom writes "In order to cause the extinction of human life, the impacting body would probably have to be greater than 1 km in diameter (and probably 3 - 10 km)".
However, the supernova would have to be precisely oriented relative to Earth to have any negative effect. However, as the Sun grows gradually hotter (over millions of years), Earth may become too hot for life as early as one billion years from now. Only prokaryotes will remain.
Other possible scenarios include Mercury colliding with the Sun, being ejected from the Solar System, or colliding with Earth. Before the final collision, the Moon possibly spirals below Earth's Roche limit, breaking into a ring of debris, most of which falls to Earth's surface.
Frank Hoogerbeets, who is based in the Netherlands, has been ridiculed for his claims which he says uses planetary alignments to work out when seismic activity on Earth will increase. His "non-scientific" system is rubbished by mainstream geologists, but he claims he is slowly proving there is something in his theory which says the alignments of planets can create a gravitational pull on our world, causing tremors to strike.